Creatine is not an essential nutrient, as it is manufactured in the human body from L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine.
In humans and animals, approximately half of stored creatine originates from food (about 1g a day, mainly from meat). A study, involving 18 vegetarians and 24 non-vegetarians, on the effect of creatine in vegetarians showed that total creatine was significantly lower than in non-vegetarians.
Since vegetables do not contain the primary source of creatine, vegetarians can be expected to show lower levels of directly derived muscle creatine. However, the subjects happened to show the same levels after using Creatine supplements.
Given the fact that creatine can be synthesized from amino acids, protein sources rich in these amino acids can be expected to provide adequate capability of native biosynthesis in the human body.
The effect of creatine supplementation has been studied in people with different levels of fitness and athletic ability, ranging from elite athletes to relatively unfit beginners. Creatine supplementation had a performance-enhancing effect for a wide range of sports.;
For sports that require speed, such as sprinting, long jump, swimming, kayaking/rowing, and for intensive strength training by bodybuilders and cyclists, short-term creatine supplementation can greatly improve performance in the areas of maximum strength and endurance (5-15%), with interval training in the maximum range (5-20%), with power production in short sprints (approx. 30%,) and in training with repetitive sprints (5-15%).
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